Harmonics - part 2
From the Mystical world of ASTROLOGY
A division of the zodiacal circle by a specified number, used in the interpretation of a birth chart.
From the logical & analytical world of PHYSICS
A component frequency of an oscillation or wave.
From the Interesting & my favorite world of Electrical Engineering
Harmonics are a distortion of the normal electrical current waveform, generally transmitted by nonlinear loads
Harmonics add richness , depth & everlasting magic to music . You can always go down the memory lane & time passages , accompanied by your favourite musical piece.
This sweet flavour of Harmonics in MUSIC becomes very bitter when added to Alternating Electrical Voltages & Currents with base frequency of 50 or 60 Hz.
At this point let us meet Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (21 March 1768 – 16 May 1830)
The figure shows the Fundamental wave and its multiples operating simultaneously.
The combined effect can be obtained by the simple processes of summation
The resultant wave is distorted due to the addition of waves of frequencies which are multiples of the main wave (fundamental) .
This distortion in Power Frequency voltage & resulting current wave is due to the non-linear nature of the catered load.
The bitterness of Harmonics is manifested in many ways . We will not go into details
The most obvious and harmful effect is the increase in operating temperature of the electrical equipment .
The harmonics ‘distort ‘ the temperature class, due to extra current (zero sequence) generated heat which is not anticipated in nonlinear-loaded networks.
The following parameter has to be taken in consideration when Electrical Equipment are selected for use in hazardous area.
TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION or (THD)
THD is a common measurement of the level of harmonic distortion present in power systems.
Within the same perspective the Power Factor has to be modified by considering THD.
Power factor is the ratio of kilowatts & kilo-Volt-Ampere (kW/kVA) . In reality it is the combination of Displacement Part & Distortion Part